[GMAT Verbal] 题型心法大解密

在GMAT里,Verbal是由三种题型组成,句子改错(SC),逻辑推理(CR)和阅读理解(RC),总共36题。其中SC的比重占得比较多约12-13题。SC不仅题目量较多难度也是最难的, 它更是其他两科的基础, 所以如果要提升阅读的理解力, 当然我们在SC上就要好好下番功夫,  在这边提供一个SC必读的教材”Manhattan SC” 这本书的单字并不难, 所以建议刚入门的新生们可以好好啃一遍喔

SC到底在考察什么?

以下我们一起来看几个例题的解题步骤:

Q1:

Recently physicians have determined that stomach ulcers are not caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but a bacterium that dwells in the mucous lining of the stomach.

(A) not caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but

(B) not caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but are by

(C) caused not by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but by 

(D) caused not by stress, alcohol, and rich foods, but

(E) caused not by stress, alcohol, and rich foods, but are by

GMAT考试相当强调文法当中的平行句构,若出现关键之对等连接词,符合句意后,对等连接词后的结构必须相似。以本题来说,not…but…极为关键。(A)选项not后面接的是过去分词caused by,但是but后面却接名词的bacterium,因此不符合。(B)选项not后面接的是过去分词caused by,但是but后面却接动词的are,因此不符合。(C)选项not后面接的是介系词by+名词stress, alcohol, or rich foods,而but后面接介系词by+名词a bacterium,因此符合平行句构,为本题正解。(D)选项not后面接的是介系词by+名词stress, alcohol, or rich foods,但是but后面却直接搭配名词的bacterium,因此不符合。(E)选项not后面接的是介系词by+名词stress, alcohol, or rich foods,但是but后面却接动词的are,因此不符合。

Q2:

During her presidency of the short-lived Woman’s State Temperance Society (1852-1853), Elizabeth Cady Stanton, as she was a staunch advocate of liberalized divorce laws, scandalized many of her most ardent supporters in her suggestion that drunkenness should be made sufficient cause for divorce.

(A) as she was a staunch advocate of liberalized divorce laws, scandalized many of her most ardent supporters in her suggestion that drunkenness should be

(B) as she was a staunch advocate for liberalized divorce laws, scandalized many of her most ardent supporters by her suggestion of drunkenness being 

(C) in being a staunch advocate for liberalized divorce laws, had scandalized many of her most ardent supporters with the suggestion of drunkenness being 

(D) a staunch advocate of liberalized divorce laws, scandalized many of her most ardent supporters by suggesting that drunkenness be 

(E) a staunch advocate of liberalized divorce laws, she scandalized many of her most ardent supporters in suggesting that drunkenness should be 

首先,本题一开始即可发现Elizabeth Cady Stanton为本题之主词,逗号后围棋同位语,无须再使用as…「身为」之介系词词组或者是in being的用法,直接搭配一个名词a staunch advocate作为同位语最为简洁,因此选项剩下(D)以及(E)。而(D) (E)皆出现了关键判断动词suggest。英文中表建议、提议的suggest, advise, propose, recommend,表请求、要求的ask, demand, require, request,表命令的order, command,表坚持的insist以及表力劝urge,后面常会搭配 that + S + (should) + V,而由于GMAT要求精简,因此若考题出现相关动词,后面子句当中的should必须省略,因此答案选(D) 。

Q3:

Because of the sharp increases in the price of gold and silver, the value of Monica Taylor’s portfolio rose as her daughter-in-law’s dropped.
(A) as her daughter-in-law’s dropped
(B) while her daughter-in-law’s has dropped
(C) as there was a drop in her daughter-in-law’s
(D) while that of her daughter-in-law’s dropped
(E) as it dropped for her daughter-in-law’s

首先,本题我们可以看到前半句话是在说the value of Monica Taylor’s portfolio rose,后半句则是说daughter-in-law投资组合的价值dropped。rose以及dropped是相当明显句意相反,互相对比的两个动词,因此需使用表对比的连接词while。而须注意的是,dropped的主词应为the value of her daughter-in-law’s portfolio,而(D)选项的that代替的就是前面的value,因此为正解。(B)选项将value of Monica Taylor’s portfolio以及her daughter-in-law’s portfolio去对比,但前者为value,后者为portfolio,不可互相比较,因此选(D)。

CR的全称是Critical Reasoning

这个科目会有8-10题,其中算分题数量固定,一共8题,考试时数量不固定

大家会将CR简称为“逻辑”,所以有些可爱的学生就不假思索的去搜索研究一些“逻辑学”的概念,结果越学头越晕。其实,去研究逻辑学中的形式逻辑概念跟我们所以学的是差天差地远的。CR其实就是小RC, RC 主旨题跟细节题之外的题目,超过半数都是 CR 题,所以对待CR和RC的学习方式其实是差不多的, 唯一不同的是CR的叙述都是虚构的, 所以就算没有太多的背景知识也是可以解的出来, 至于很多人会去学习很多的CR技巧, 技巧有不是没有用, 只是要建立在健全的基础上喔

正确的GMAT Verbal备考方式应该是:

1. 建立CR知识基础:

先系统学习CR必备的基本概念、规范的解题步骤、有系统的思维方法以及解题的基本原则。

2. 单科加强刷题:

学习过知识系后,并不代表你就完全理解它,还需要经过一定量的刷题,将学到的解题技巧运用在实际的题目中,并通过不断的总结内化。

3. 考前模考冲刺:

考试中GMAT verbal各科是交替出现的,所以思维上的切换会比单科练习来得多很多,真实上战场和平时练习是完全不一样的,所以考前一定要有足够多的模考来模拟的考场节奏和状态。

我们废话不多说, 来看一下以下几个例题

CR到底在考察什么?

Q1:

A study followed a group of teenagers who had never smoked and tracked whether they took up smoking and how their mental health changed. After one year, the incidence of depression among those who had taken up smoking was four times as high as it was among those who had not. Since nicotine in cigarettes changes brain chemistry, perhaps thereby affecting mood, it is likely that smoking contributes to depression in teenagers.

Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

(A) Participants who were depressed at the start of the study were no more likely to be smokers after one year than those who were not depressed.

(B) The study did not distinguish between participants who smoked only occasionally and those who were heavy smokers.

(C) Few, if any, of the participants in the study were friends or relatives of other participants.

(D) Some participants entered and emerged from a period of depression within the year of the study.

(E) The researchers did not track use of alcohol by the teenagers.

题目情境:根据研究,只要吸烟的人都更容易忧郁,所以我们认为,吸烟会造成忧郁症状的发生。本题的推理结构为,吸烟会导致忧郁倾向。

(A) 题目本身只能看出忧郁以及吸烟为正向关系,但是两者为正向关系不能够说明何者为因,何者为果。若要证明「吸烟会导致忧郁倾向」,则必须排除「忧郁倾向会导致吸烟」,而本选项正牌除了这种可能性,因而更确定了「吸烟会导致忧郁倾向」,因此(A)为正确解答。

(B) 研究没有分别那些仅仅偶尔抽烟和重度烟瘾者。本选项与忧郁无关。

(C) 几乎很少研究参与者是其余参与者之朋友或亲属。本选项与忧郁无关。

(D) 有的参与者在一年的研究当中展现了一段时间的忧郁。本选项并没有提到忧郁的成因,因此非解答。

(E) 研究人员没有追踪青少年饮酒情形。本选项与吸烟以及忧郁无关。

Q2:

Advertisement: Ten years ago, the Cormond Hotel’s lobby was carpeted with Duratex carpet while the lobby of a nearby hotel was being carpeted with our competitor’s most durable carpet. Today, after a decade in which the two hotels have had similar amounts of foot traffic through their lobbies, that other hotel is having to replace the worn-out carpeting near its lobby entrances, whereas the Cormond’s Duratex carpeting has years of wear left in it.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the force of the advertisement’s evidence for concluding that Duratex carpet is more durable than the carpet of its competitor?

(A) The lobby of the Cormond Hotel has five different entrances, but the lobby of the other hotel has only two.

(B) The carpet of the Cormond Hotel’s lobby is not the most durable carpet that Duratex manufactures.

(C) The other hotel has a popular restaurant that can be reached from outside without walking through the hotel lobby.

(D) The carpet that is being used to replace carpeting near the other hotel’s lobby entrances is not Duratex carpet.

(E) There is a third hotel near the other two that has not replaced the Duratex carpet in its lobby for more than 15 years.

题目情境:Duratex的地毯最为耐用,因为证据显示,Cormond Hotel铺了Duratex地毯之后,经过了10年也没坏;然而附近其他饭店他品牌地毯已经坏了。因此,Duratex的质量最佳。

(A) Cormond Hotel的大厅有五个门,但是其余饭店大厅有两个门。因此,Cormond Hotel的大厅的门被踩踏的机率较低,因此并不全然是因为Duratex的质量最佳。为本题正解。

(B) Cormond Hotel的大厅所铺设的地毯并非Duratex制作的最耐用的地毯。本选项与Duratex的质量最佳与否并无关系。

(C) 其他饭店有个可以不从大厅走就能到的很受欢迎之餐厅。本选项与Duratex的质量最佳与否并无关系。

(D) 其他饭店想要替换的的地毯并非Duratex所制作的地毯。本选项与Duratex的质量最佳与否并无关系。

(E) 有第三家饭店在大厅用了Duratex的地毯超过十五年也没有损坏,本选项反而强化了Duratex的质量最佳论述,与题目要求的weaken刚好相反。

Q3:

From 1973 to 1976, total United States consumption of cigarettes increased 3.4 percent, and total sales of chewing tobacco rose 18.0 percent. During the same period, total United States population increased 5.0 percent.

If the statements above are true, which of the following conclusions can be properly drawn?

(A) United States manufacturers of tobacco products had higher profits in 1976 than in 1973.

(B) Per capita consumption of cigarettes in the United States was lower in 1976 than in 1973.

(C) The proportion of nonsmokers in the United States population dropped slightly between 1973 and 1976.

(D) United States manufacturers of tobacco products realize a lower profit on cigarettes than on chewing tobacco.

(E) A large percentage of United States smokers switched from cigarettes to chewing tobacco between 1973 and 1976.

(A) 美国烟制造商的利润在1976年比1973年要高。题目中并没有提到利润相关的问题,因此本选项非正解。

(B) 1976年平均每人消费之香烟比1973年低。由题目叙述,我们得知人口增加5%,单是香烟消费只增加3.4%,分母提升的程度大于分子,因此本选项为正解。

(C) 在1976到1973年之间,不抽烟的人数比例下降了。本题未提及到抽烟人数之问题,因此本选项非正解。

(D) 美国烟制造商意识到烟的利润比嚼烟还要低。题目中并没有提到两种烟的利润高低,因此本选项非正解。

(E) 在1973到1976年之间,有很大比例美国抽烟的人从抽烟转化成了嚼烟。我们可以从题目发现嚼烟的销售量提升,但不代表抽嚼烟的人不会抽一般的烟,两者之间并非一增一减的关系。

RC:

GMAT阅读部分大概会是4篇文章,两长两短,长文章一般350字左右,有4道题,短文章一般250字左右,有3道题。GMAT的RC文章使用的主题范围非常广泛, 常常会遇到不同专业的主题, 所以任何一个人都可能会遇到自己不擅长的文, 这时候我们当然不能奢求在考试中仅用短短几分钟就掌握学术性的内容主题, 所以这时候会不会分析信息和内容就成了RC成绩的高低的关键了, 简单来说RC要考的并不是文章的专业度, 而是考生在压力环境下如何处理陌生文章并且或去相关讯息的能力

以下提供几个方法:

文字理解能力

GMAT不像托福那样会围绕着一个生字展开衍伸,但是很多GMAT题型都会针对文章中所提到的细节延伸出来。有些题目会要求挑选文章中的内容的同义阐述,有些题目则是挑选简洁的语句来盖括一段文章的意思,另外一种是要求找到对应字面意思的延伸和推断。所以对文字字面意思的理解是整个阅读过程中的最为核心的重点

掌握main idea和文章结构

文章中的每一个句子和段落都是围绕着一个中心或观点来延伸的。有时我们能很快的找到文章中心,但更多的时候这需要从整篇文章的内文和结构来确定。里面的考题大多是要识别、找出文章的中心,并且去总结文章所想表达目的,或者为文章去拟一个简单的标题。

理解延伸的含义

文字除了自身的意思之外, 常常也会有字面外的意思, 所以如何辨别“弦外之音“也是阅读的一大重点。在RC的题目中, 常常会有一些文章题目是清晰但有隐含文字背后的意思, 像是作者对观点的态度或残在风险等。最后的关键的题information题, 这没什么好方法,就是锻炼看题目时的记忆力,还有主要从段落意思上来看

把这几个重点总结一下, 你将形成一种GMAT RC的感觉,并且会在你再次写题目时融入你的阅读方法。